The cultures of the East and the West really distinguish（区别）each other a lot. This is because the culture systems are two separate systems____21___.
The origin of the eastern cultures is mainly from two countries: China and India. Both of the two cultures are gestated(孕育) by ___22___. In China, the mother river is the Yellow River___23___ the Indian one is the Hindu River. These two cultures were ___24___ for several thousand years and formed their own styles. Then in Tang Dynasty of China, the Chinese culture___25___ went overseas to Japan, ___26___ into the Japanese society and ___27___ the Japanese culture nowadays. Though a bit different from the Chinese one, it ___28___ to the same system.
When the two mother rivers gave ___29___ to the eastern culture, another famous culture was brought up on the Mesopotamian Plain--- the Mesopotamian Civilization. This civilization later on developed into the cultures of the Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. And these two are well- known as the ___30___ of the European culture. ___31___ the Chinese culture, the European one also ___32___waters. When the colonists of England ___33___down in America, their culture went with them over the Atlantic Ocean. So the American culture doesn’t ___34___ from the European one a lot.
At the same time, the ___35___ of the language systems adds to the cultural differences. In the East, most languages belong to the pictographic languages while the Western languages are ___36___ based on the Latin system, for example, the one I ‘m using to write this paper.
Other factors like human race difference ___37___ as well. However, ____38___ the far distance and the steep areas between the East and West, the two cultures seldom ___39__ until recent centuries.___40___ they grew up totally in their own ways with almost no interference (干扰) from the other.
21. A. above all B. on the whole C. in all D. first of all
22. A. mountains B. plains C. lakes D. rivers
23. A. since B. when C. while D. as
24. A. developed B. improved C. created D. protected
25. A. suddenly B. quietly C. gradually D. naturally
26. A. mixed B. flowed C. moved D. forced
27. A. expanded B. enriched C. influenced D. shaped
28. A. comes B. belongs C. amounts D. adds
29. A. birth B. way C. root D. origin
30. A. characteristics B. sign C. base D. content
31. As B. Unlike C. With D. Like
32. A. passed B. spread C. crossed D. formed
33. A. fell B. went C. broke D. settled
34. A. separate B. grow C. move D. distinguish
35. A. difference B. use C. appearance D. change
36. A. properly B. partly C. simply D. mostly
37. A. include B. counts C. depends D. worked
38. A. in terms of B. due to C. as to D. in case of
39. A. help B. connect C. communicate D. meet
40. A. But B. Because C. So D. Yet
The sea has always interested man. From it he can get food, minerals, and treasure. For thousands of years, he could sail on it. But he could not go far beneath its surface.
Man wants to explore deep into the sea. However, he is not a fish. He must breathe air, so he can’t stay under the water’s surface for any length of time. To explore deep water, man faces even more dangers and problems.
A diver who wants to stay under water for more than a few minutes must breathe air or a special mixture of gases. He can wear a diving suit and have air pumped to him from above. He can carry a tank of air on his back and breathe through a hose(软管) and a mouthpiece. Water weighs 800 times as much as air. Tons of water pushes against a diver deep in the sea. His body is under great pressure.
When a diver is under great pressure, his blood takes in some of the gases he breathes. As he rises to surface, the water pressure becomes less. If the diver rises too quickly, the gases in his blood form bubbles(气泡). The diver is then suffering from the bends(潜函病). The bends can cause a diver to double up in pain. They can even kill him.
【小题1】 On the whole, this text is about _________.
|A．special mixtures of gases in deep sea.|
|B．the problems a diver faces in deep sea.|
|C．air pressure under the surface of sea water.|
|D．a kind of illness that man suffers in the sea.|
|A．deep-sea divers should be in good health.|
|B．divers explore the deep sea only for treasure.|
|C．there is a special mixture of gases under the sea.|
|D．diving under the water too quickly causes a kind of illness.|
|A．The air in his blood is used up.||B．His diving suit weighs too much.|
|C．He comes to the surface too quickly.||D．He tries to do exercise under the sea.|
Most of the people who appear most often and most gloriously in the history books are great conquerors (统治者) and generals and soldiers, while the people who really helped civilization forward are often never mentioned at all. We do not know who first set a broken leg, or launched a seaworthy boat, or calculated the length of the year, or manured (施肥)a field; but we know all about the killers and destroyers.
People think a great deal of them, so much that on all the highest pillars (纪念柱)in the great cities of the world you will find the figure of a conqueror or a general or a soldier. And I think most people believe that the greatest countries are those that have beaten in battle the greatest number of other countries and ruled over them as conquerors. It is just possible they are, but they are not the most civilized. Animals fight; so do savages（野蛮人）; so to be good at fighting is to be good in the way in which an animal or a savage is good, but it is not to be civilized. Even being good at getting other people to fight for you and telling them how to do it most efficiently — this, after all, is what conquerors and generals have done — is not being civilized. People fight to settle quarrels. Fighting means killing, and civilized peoples ought to be able to find some ways of settling their disputes other than by seeing which side can kill off greater number of the other side, and then saying that the side which has killed most has won. And not only has it won, but, because it has won, it has been in the right. For that is what going to war means; it means saying that power is right.
This is what the story of mankind has on the whole been like. Even our own age has fought the two greatest wars in history, in which millions of people were killed or mutilated (disabled). And while today it is true that people do not fight and kill each other in the streets — while, that is to say, we have got to the stage of keeping the rules and behaving properly to each other in daily life — nations and countries have not learnt to do this yet, and still behave like savages.
【小题1】In the opening sentence, the author indicates that .
|A．most history books were written by conquerors, generals and soldiers|
|B．history book tell us far more about conquerors, generals and soldiers than actual creators of civilization|
|C．those who rally helped human civilization forward is not mentioned in history books at all|
|D．conquerors, generals and soldiers should be least mentioned in history books|
|A．built the highest pillars for their conquerors|
|B．were ruled by the greatest number of conquerors|
|C．won the greatest number of battles against other countries|
|D．were beaten in battle by the greatest number of other countries|
|A．certainly both the most powerful and most civilized.|
|B．neither the greatest nor the most civilized in any way.|
|C．possibly either the most civilized or the most powerful in a way.|
|D．likely the most powerful in some sense but not the most civilized.|
|A．fighters believe that the winner is right and the loser wrong.|
|B．only those who are powerful have the right to go to war.|
|C．those who are right should fight against those who are wrong.|
|D．only powerful nations might win the right to rule weak ones.|
Who do you think was the most important woman of the past 100 years?
Jane Addams (1860 - 1935)
Addams helped the poor and worked for peace. She created shelters, education opportunities and services for people in need. In 1931, Addams became the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
Rachel Carson (1907 - 1964)
Rachel Carson was born in the rural river town of Springdale, Pennsylvania in America. The popular 1962 book “Silent Spring” by Rachel Carson made people realize the dangers and the harmful effects (影响) of pollution on humans and on the world’s lakes and oceans.
Angela Merkel (1954 - )
In 2005, Germans chose Angela Merkel as their first woman head of the country. She had been a scientist in the past. As Germany’s leader, she has had an effect on the whole world.
Sandra Day O’Connor (1930 - )
When Sandra Day O’Connor finished her class at Stanford Law School, in 1952, she could not find work because she was a woman. However, she became the first woman to join the U.S. Supreme Court (最高法院) in 1981 after years of hard work.
Margaret Thatcher (1925 - )
In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became Britain’s first woman Prime Minister (首相). She served until 1990, which made her the first British leader to serve three terms in a row. Because of her high standards and strong will, people called her Britain’s Iron Lady.
Marie Curie (1867-1934)
Polish-born scientist Marie Curie discovered that some types of metal give off energy called radiation (辐射能). Her research led to new medical treatments and arms. She received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 and in Chemistry in 1911.
【小题1】Who once won the Nobel Prize?
|A．Jane Addams and Marie Curie.|
|B．Jane Addams and Margaret Thatcher.|
|C．Marie Curie and Angela Merkel.|
|D．Marie Curie and Rachel Carson.|
|A．help the poor|
|B．spread geographic knowledge|
|C．protect the environment|
|D．protect the rights of women|
|A．Both of them were scientists before coming to power.|
|B．Both of them are the first woman head of their country.|
|C．Both of them are famous for being strict.|
|D．Both of them have worked for three terms.|
|A．Jane Addams.||B．Sandra Day O’Connor.|
|C．Rachel Carson.||D．Margaret Thatcher.|
|A．Great women||B．Famous scientists|
|C．Strong leaders||D．Ways to success for women|
For many years, artists have flocked to Paris, France, to paint or to learn to paint. Perhaps artists first went there because of the city′s beauty. They went to paint pictures of the broad, tree-lined streets, the great churches, and the graceful river bridges.
The artists felt comfortable in Paris because the people of the city had always enjoyed art. Paris had great art museums, filled with famous paintings and statues(雕像)from many countries. And the people of Paris had always welcomed new ideas. In this city, artists felt free to experiment with new ways of painting.
As soon as famous artists painted in Paris, students came to learn from them. People came to buy paintings. People called art dealers set up galleries where paintings were bought and sold. Others kept shops that sold artists′ paints and supplies.
Students and artists who were not yet famous could live in Paris for very little money. They learned by studying great art in the museums, and they learned from one another. They held art fairs, hanging their paintings outdoors along the streets.
Today, New York City and Florence, Italy, are also famous art centers. But the world’s main art exhibits are still held in Paris. Important judges of art live there. Most of the new ways of painting that have started in the last hundred years began in Paris. So artists and art dealers still go to Paris because it is the world′s leading art center.
【小题1】In Pairs artists can make progress in art by doing lots of things except .
|A．painting the beautiful scenes of Pairs.|
|B．visiting museums, churches and fairs.|
|C．trying out their new ideas in the way of painting.|
|D．buying or selling paintings in the fair.|
|A．Paris is famous for its artists’ paints and supplies|
|B．there is more than one way to paint|
|C．art fairs are held in galleries|
|D．Florence is the center of world art exhibits|
|A．Pairs is a beautiful city|
|B．The French are willing to accept any new things.|
|C．All the museums are free of charge in Pairs.|
|D．Artists can make an easier life in Pairs.|
|A．the world′s most famous art center|
|B．how to buy a painting in Paris|
|C．the famous art centers of New York and Florence|
|D．where to set up galleries|